The History Of Helicopter Discovery


The helicopter is an aircraft that picked up and driven by one or more rotors (propeller) large horizontal. Helicopters are classified as-rotating wing aircraft to distinguish them from ordinary fixed-wing aircraft other. The word comes from the Greek helicopter helix (spiral) and pteron (wing). The helicopter operated by the machine invented by the inventor of Slovakia in January Bahyl.

Compared with other fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters are more complex and more expensive to buy and operate, rather slow, has a close distance and roaming charges are limited. While the advantage is its movement; helicopters capable of flying in space, backward, and take off and land vertically. Limited in the addition of fuel facilities and load / altitude, the helicopter can fly to any location, and land anywhere with a pitch of the rotor and a half in diameter. Called a helipad helipad.

The working principle Helicopters

Helicopters can fly because of lift generated by air flow generated by the blades of the propeller rotor. Propeller was a stream of air flow from top to bottom. Air flow in such a swift so that they can lift objects weighing dozens of tons. His theory is actually quite simple but practically complex.


In essence, the basic principles of flying fixed wing aircraft (fixed wing) with a helicopter which is also known rotary winged aircraft is essentially fixed. The key was on the two major forces that work integrated, produce lift and thrust are great.

On the strength of the first fixed wing aircraft produced by the air flow at the surface of the wings that form a certain angle with small wings that flap in the rear wing of the position upheld. So that the air flow flowing backwards could be directed back to the top. The air flowing at the bottom of the wing surface pressure is relatively flat surface of the wing was involved pressing upward causing the lift and cause the plane upward. At least 15 percent of the total force generated, used to lift the fuselage upward.

Another major strength is the thrust produced by the flow of air in the upper wing surface is relatively curved shape. When the air flow generated by the engine flows into the rear and through the main wing, the airflow is divided. Air stream flowing over the wing upper surface is more rapid than the flow of air that hit the bottom of the wing surface. But the pressure of air flowing over the wing upper surface, relatively small compared with the air pressure in the lower wing surface is precisely the flow is less heavy. This air pressure difference causes the wing upward. To imagine how much lift it, the theory states that the air pressure difference of 2.5 ounces per square inch to produce lift 20 pounds per square foot (1 foot = 20 cm). Can be calculated, if the wing area 1000 square feet, the lift force generated will reach 10 tons.

In the helicopter, the function of the wing was replaced by propeller blades though each smaller than a regular airplane wing, but when played, curvanya relatively similar to the wing. To get the lift, the rotor blades must be directed at a particular position so as to form a large angle. The principle is the same as fixed wing aircraft, the helicopter there are two major forces that influence each other. Air flow moving forward propeller blades so that the pressing blade propeller driven back to back results in a small lift. But when when the flow of air moving quickly over the top and bottom of the blades of the propeller, a large air pressure between the blades will automatically expand to the entire surface of the lower pressure, causing the propeller driven up and the helicopter were drawn. Remember, even though the blades of the propeller is just a few pieces, but in a state of racing, he will form a flat surface and the air is pressed onto the large pressure menimbukan which eventually resulted in a greater lift. This principle is equivalent to the propellers on the aircraft-engine turboprop and the same with "propeller" children's toys.

Some of the helicopters used in warfare, such as Mi-26 Hind for example equipped with small wings called the Canard, the first function to relieve the burden on the main rotor and the second to increase the rate and extend the reach cruising speed. Another function is as a hanger weapons, missiles and others. By adding this short wings, the functional differences between fixed plane with a helicopter to be vague. Fixed wing aircraft is also capable of flying-landing vertically (Vertical Take-off Landing / VTOL). Contonya, of a kind Sea Harrier AV-8 Harrier or Harrier.

Excess fixed wing aircraft, especially about the flight because the plane of this type have a wide platform that is relatively more stable during flight. Questions flew it, it matters set aileron on the wing and vertical stabilizer and the existing flat on the tail. But the helicopter is not the case. When the blades of the propeller rotornya rotornya own produce lift themselves working on it move the air down as much. While the weight of the displaced air thus reducing the heavy helicopter helicopter lifted. And if the helicopter was lifted, means there is a balance between the weight of air displaced from the top down with the weight of helicopter. To operate the helicopter was there the usual steering tool disebutcollective pitch and cyclic pitch of each function as a regulator and booster lift helicopters for moving forward. So simple how it works, but transforming in a technology job really very complicated.

Tail rotor

Similarly, the rotor configuration, not just to rotate and fly and float. Because the propeller rotated setap will always cause torque generally termed torque. To eliminate or counteract the power play that could cause the helicopter body is spinning, it needs to be installed antitorque.

This can be Antitorque tail rotor or tail rotor mounted on the tail of the aircraft that also serves as a rudder. This configuration can be seen in the general helicopter like the Bell-412, Bell-205 or UH-1 Huey, or NBO-105, and AS-330 Puma or Super Puma AS-335, AH-64 Apache or the Mi-24 Hind. Selin using the tail rotor, there are still some other Desai. For example, using a tandem system as used on helicopter Boeing CH-47 Chinook or CH-46 Sea Knight. Both the rotor, which together are large each placed in front of and behind the helicopter body. Both symmetrical but has a round in the opposite direction. That is to negate each other round effects arising from each other, intermesh in popular language. Another way is to configure egg-beater. This design configuration as used on helicopter Kamov Ka-25 Russian-made or Kaman HH-43 Husky. Both the blades of the same magnitude was placed in one axis, separated from each other where a single rotor mounted above the other. Both are rotating in opposite directions. That is to eliminate the effects of rotation or torque.

Other Ways Than the three above, Also made ??the configuration without a tail rotor. This helicopter is called NOTAR (No Tail Rotor) system has a Slightly different with the existing system of Nowhere the use of a blast of hot gas from the main engine is channeled through the tail tube. Examples are MD-902 Explorer helicopter

On or Tilt Rotor Rotor and Wing On or Tilt Wing

Takeoff and landing style characterized by helicopter but fly fixed wing aircraft types is a concept embraced by helicopter of this type. The easiest way is to incorporate the concept of working helicopters with fixed wing aircraft in a single form.

The principle works technically, when the main rotor is directed upward by the vertical movement can be done while helikoter when the rotor is directed forward or backward (as pursher or driving) then the characters fly like a plane can still be obtained. Rotor motion such as this do not need to involve the wings.

Actually the development of active rotor is still covered with uncertainty, the problem is the system that you want can be called a fixed wing aircraft because it has a large berlumayan wings, tail plane and also have a fixed wing aircraft configured with ordinary. Finally, this concept called the hybrid concept. Examples of this helicopter is the V-22 Osprey. In addition to the active rotor concepts, there is also an active wing concept, which is driven rotor as the rotor is not active but the wing plane. While the engine remained in his position. Examples of this helicopter is the TW-68 is designed by Ishida Corporation, Japan, this design was mentioned refer to as having a more compact design compared to the active rotor sustainability unfortunately just is not so sound.

Helicopter Jump Seats

Compared to the normal plane, especially fighter aircraft, helicopters are generally not equipped with ejection seats. This is due to face the problem of helicopter rotor during launch ejection seats as well as helicopters generally fly lower so more vulnerable. However, the Russian helicopter, Kamov Ka-50 hokum that uses specially designed ejection seats like Zvesda K-37-800. Step it works is when the ejection seat is activated, the rotor was blown up and out of position, then both sides of the glass cockpit open and active towing an interesting rocket pilots and helicopters kirsinya out of the body. Although considered complicated, future helicopter will be equipped with ejection seats

Discovery Helicopters

Actually, the helicopter trip into a form that is known at the time this takes quite a long period of time. In the process, also involves the development of technology and also the inventor and developer helikoter.

The first helicopter flew the man is the Breguet-Richet helicopter, 1907. Heli is flying in Douai, France on September 29, 1907. Helicopters are still getting help from four people who hold all four feet. This effort did not get a good record as the first helicopter to fly free. However, this proves the success of the helicopter vertical flight theory that time was still considered a theory. This is the first machine that can fly by itself carry a pilot vertically as a result of wing lift swivel. Heli uses powerful 50 hp Antoinette engine.

Flying helicopters actually done by Paul Cutaneous using a twin-engine helicopters Antoinette 24 hp at Lisieux, France on November 13, 1907. The flight lasted 20 seconds to a height of 0.3 meter. While the first Gyroplane Helicopter type C4 achieved by artificial Autogiro Juan de la Cierva. Autogiro first flew on January 9, 1923. The secret of success in the adoption of a joint system of flapping hinges the blades to the rotor head. While the helicopter which first flew successfully carried out by type of Fock Wulf FW-61 double berotor designed by Professor Heinrich Focke in the year 1933-1934. The helicopter was doing flying debut on June 26, 1936 and powered by Siemens-Halske Sh 14A-powered 160 hp. Heli was flown by Ewald Rohlfs. Heli fly as far as this record 122.35 km and long flown one hour 20 minutes 49 seconds. At other times he flew to a height of 3427 meters and record the speed of 122 miles / hour.

Helicopter pioneer developer of technology

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)

Leonardo da Vinci actually developed the concept of vertical flight and was previously a children's toy from the plains of China, it is unclear exactly since when children's toys was developed there and who inisiatornya or discoverer. In 1483 Leonardo da Vinci developed the concept of the screw flight.

Sir George Cayley (1773-1857)

Sir George Cayley is known as an engineer and innovator in air navigation and aerodynamics. One of the introduction of the term angle of attack in the world of aviation. In history, he is a figure who develop fixed-wing aircraft and gliders or gliders however, he developed the rotary wing or helicopter. Helicopters are the introduction of a compilation of wood, fur, cork and wire.

In 1842, Cayley designed the helicopter better, especially when they know that spin the propeller can lead to disastrous and require antidotes. Deterrence theory is also presented by him. To be able to fly, this helikpter put two rotors which move in opposite directions. Although the design is not yet tangible helicopter with an airborne helicopter, the concept used by the Kamov helicopters from Russia and Focke of Germany.

Nikolai Egorovich Zhikovsky (1847-1921)

Zhukovsky aviation career began with pursue mathematics, hydrodynamics and aerodynamics. Zhukovsky then discovered the world's first wind tunnel to test the aerodynamic technology. Falls in the development of a helicopter in 1910 and in World War I developed a lot of airplanes and helicopters

Juan de la Cierva (1895-1936)

Cierva developed a helicopter after a homemade double-winged bomber fell in 1919, the reason is the stability of the helicopter sees higher. In developing the design helicopter, Cierva ignore the various theories developed previously, using the newly-made designs which are based on the theory he developed through various experiments. Autogiro which is resulting in a hodgepodge concept aircraft between aircraft flying generally so that it can perform a vertical landing, half helicopter and half airplane. Autogiro Cierva flew in 1923. Five years later Cierva do Autogiro flights around Europe with more than 5000 km as far as he promoted. His efforts were not in vain because Autogiro a number of industrial design is great demand in Europe. Autogiro Cierva died in an accident in Croydon in 1936.

Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky (1889-1972)

Sikorsky took an interest in flight by designing various aircraft models including a helicopter from an early age. At first he entered the Naval Academy in St. Petersburg who later resigned and went to Paris to explore the science of engineering and aviation. After Paris, he returned to Kiev, Ukraine and develop the helicopter but failed. Sikorsky Bolshevik Revolution forced to move to Paris and then settled in the United States.

In 1939 he flew his first helicopter VS-300 and during its development, has recorded several record helicopter flight. Until entering the 21st century there are about 40,000 man-made Sikorsky helicopters flying in various parts of the world.

Mikhail Mill (1909-1970)

As with Sikorsy, Mill took an interest in aviation early age. He won the competition model airplanes at age 12. He then entered the Aviation Institute in Novocherkassk and develop the first autogiro with supervision and guidance of Kamov and Skrzhinsky. After graduating in 1931, he entered the center of the Russian aerodynamics TsAGi, and it was here doing research on helicopter aerodynamics with an emphasis on stability and design of the rotor.

In 1947, Miles was appointed head of design of new helicopters and helicopters bring GM-1 is known to be a Mi-1 Hare. Success Hare guide further development of the most famous helicopters like Mi-4, Mil Mi-6 Hook Mi-8 and others.

BMW announces three two-car teams for 2012 DTM series

Touring car racing fans are eagerly anticipating the return of BMW to the DTM series. The Bavarian automaker last competed in DTM (or its progenitors, anyway) a whopping 18 years ago, but late last year announced it would return to the German touring car series in 2012. Now it has revealed the means to that end.

Rather than field its own entries, BMW will be supplying the vehicles and factory support for three independent teams: BMW Team RBM, BMW Team Schnitzer and Reinhold Motorsport GmbH. Both RBM and Schnitzer have a longstanding relationship with BMW Motorsport, while Reinhold is a completely new outfit. Each of the teams will be fielding two of the new M3 DTMs that are currently under development.

The move to DTM comes on the back of some big shakeups in BMW�s racing program. Although it pulled out of Formula One two years ago, and eliminated its works World Touring Car Championship effort at the end of last year, it has recently pitched the Mini division into the WRC with Prodrive and launched the DTM program to pick up where it left off in the WTCC.

[Source: BMW Motorsport]


BMW Motorsport presents the teams for its DTM project.

BMW Motorsport heralds a new era on its way entering the DTM. Development of the car has been running at full speed in Munich for some months now, as has the central preparation for the logistics and assembly of the race cars. Three teams, each lining up with two BMW M3 DTM cars, will be responsible for the races themselves.

BMW Motorsport has enjoyed great success in production car racing in the past with both BMW Team RBM and BMW Team Schnitzer, and all those involved are hungry for more of the same. In Reinhold Motorsport GmbH they are joined by a new team still in its fledgling stage, but which boasts individual members with a vast wealth of motorsport experience.

Mario Theissen, BMW Motorsport Director, says: �In recent months we have worked very intensely on the DTM project. The agreement with the teams was of paramount importance. We were pleased with the high level of interest and numerous applications and presentations received from a number of professional teams. The concepts presented by BMW Team RBM, BMW Team Schnitzer and Reinhold Motorsport GmbH ultimately convinced us. This is an excellent team line-up for BMW. For us, it is important that all three teams have absolute equal rights. We are looking forward to cooperating over the coming years � and hope to enjoy great success together.�

Bart Mampaey, Team Manager of BMW Team RBM, says: �The DTM is one of the toughest and the most popular racing series in the world for production cars. From a sporting point of view this poses a great challenge � but an appetizing one. We are honoured to be able to continue our successful cooperation with BMW Motorsport, which has yielded many WTCC titles, in the DTM. We still have a lot of work ahead of us over the coming months, and are now looking forward to getting to grips with the project.�

Stefan Reinhold, founder of Reinhold Motorsport GmbH, says: �In April last year, BMW announced its intention to compete in the DTM. From this day on, we have always wanted to be a part of this project. Shortly after the announcement, we presented our concept to BMW in Munich, and started to work on meeting the prerequisites for any potential cooperation. We are very proud to have been given the nod. To be part of the BMW Motorsport family with immediate effect and to strive for DTM success together is simply fantastic. We can hardly wait to get started and to vindicate the huge amount of trust BMW has placed in us.�

Charly Lamm, Team Manager of BMW Team Schnitzer, adds: �We are really looking forward to tackling the DTM project together with BMW. Schnitzer Motorsport has enjoyed a successful past in the DTM and achieved many victories together with BMW. However, past success is no guarantee that we will also be victorious in the future. The bar is set really high in DTM, and our preparations will be intensive to meet this challenge. Every team is highly motivated and the anticipation is mounting every day as we get closer to the start of the 2012 DTM season.�

BMW Team Schnitzer will run two BMW M3 GT cars for BMW Motorsport at the major endurance races in Europe and Asia. BMW Team RBM is involved in BMW customer racing projects, including the development of the BMW 320 TC and the further development of the BMW Z4 GT3.

Mario Theissen says: �While the preparation for this year�s involvement on the endurance racing circuit with the BMW M3 GT is in its final phase, the DTM project has picked up pace over the past few months. In naming the teams, we have taken the next step. As well as developing the car, it is now a matter of assigning tasks and establishing structures and processes. The cooperation between BMW Motorsport and the teams, as well as that between the team bases and the race track, must be well established. Only then will we make a statement regarding the driving line-up.�

BMW Team RBM in profile.

In 2012, BMW Team RBM will compete in the DTM with three world championship titles to its name. Under the leadership of Team Manager Bart Mampaey, the team from Mechelen, Belgium, not only won the 2004 European Touring Car Championship with Andy Priaulx at the wheel, but also proved to be the team to beat in the World Championship�
BMW Team RBM in profile.

In 2005, 2006 and 2007 the celebrations after the final WTCC race in Macau all took place in front of the RBM garage. Bart Mampaey is now looking forward to the DTM. �Competing in the DTM will be a big challenge for our team,� he says. �We are delighted that BMW is putting its faith in us again. We will use the time leading up to the first race to prepare as well as possible. The whole team is extremely motivated and hungry to get on with the development work. It is fantastic to be on board right from the start when a manufacturer like BMW launches this kind of project. We have a lot of hard work ahead of us, as the standards in the DTM are extremely high.�

Efficiency is an important factor in daily work for BMW Team RBM. Mampaey is constantly striving to use time and resources efficiently, in order to extract the full potential of the car. The team profits from the infrastructure of the BMW dealership, which the Mampaey family manages under the name JUMA. Synergies and allows RBM to concentrate on the basics: the performance on the race track.

JUMA stands for Julian Mampaey. Today�s RBM boss inherited his love of motor sport from his father. The JUMA team made a name for itself in the 1970s and 1980s, claiming three overall victories for BMW at the Spa-Francorchamps 24-hour race. Nine years after the final JUMA race, Bart Mampaey stepped into his father�s footsteps in 1995. At first, RBM was responsible for the cars in the BMW Compact Cup in Belgium. Soon after that, the Mampaey family celebrated a successful comeback at Spa: the Group N one-two in the 1997 24-hour race was followed by overall victory with the BMW 318i one year later. This was also the last overall victory for BMW to date at the �Ardennes Rollercoaster�.

RBM sent a BMW 320i to the European Touring Car Championship for BMW Belgium for the first time in 2002. One year later the team appeared for the first time in the colours of BMW Great Britain, and Priaulx was signed up to drive. After a year gaining experience in 2003, RBM caused a sensation in 2004 when Priaulx claimed the ETCC title in Dubai. Three World Championship titles show categorically that this victory was not a flash in the pan for Mampaey and his crew.

�A change of scenery will do us good, particularly when we have the prospect of lining up in a successful series like the DTM,� Mampaey says. �Having won three World Championship titles, everyone in the team is looking forward to seeing how we fair against the other teams in the DTM.�

Back to the future.

Back to the future: this could be the motto of BMW Team Schnitzer for the 2012 DTM season. Charly Lamm�s team sported BMW colours in this series back in the 1980s and 1990s � and with great success. A Schnitzer driver crossed the finish line in first place in a BMW M3 on 17 occasions, and the team also claimed eight pole positions and set 18 fastest laps.

BMW Team Schnitzer�s greatest success in the DTM came in its very first season, when Roberto Ravaglia won the 1989 drivers� title for the team from Freilassing. BMW Team Schnitzer will make its DTM comeback in 2012, almost 20 years after its last victory in Hockenheim on 11th October 1992.

�We lined up with the BMW M3 in the DTM for the first time in 1989, and were able to win the title with Roberto Ravaglia at the first attempt,� Lamm recalls. �The four seasons up to 1992 were a great time, with spectacular and thrilling races, which will always have a special place in the history of Schnitzer. Even back then, the DTM was extremely popular in Germany. It is now almost 20 years since our last DTM race. We are well aware that the series has changed dramatically. The level of competition is extremely high and the series has a far more international flavour to it. As a result, rookies like us face a huge challenge. However, we will approach the task in hand with great verve.�

During the break from the DTM, the Schnitzer team continued to line up for BMW, adding many new chapters to the brand�s motorsport success story. In 1999 it claimed overall victory at the legendary Le Mans 24 Hours (FR) with the BMW V12 LMR prototype. In 2001, BMW Team Schnitzer won the drivers�, team and manufacturers� titles in the American Le Mans Series (ALMS) with the BMW M3 GTR.

The team also has a very special relationship with the legendary 24-hour race at the N�rburgring-Nordschleife (DE). BMW Team Schnitzer finished as overall winner in the �Green Hell� in 1989, 1990, 2004, 2005 and 2010, making it one of the most successful teams in the history of this classic race. Schnitzer also enjoyed success after success in the European Touring Car Championship between 2002 and 2004, as well as the World Touring Car Championship between 2005 and 2009. The team�s drivers crossed the finish line as winners on 45 occasions in the European and World Championships.

In the last 50 years, Schnitzer has won 16 championships with BMW � including the 1987 World Touring Car Championship, three European Touring Car Championships, and championships in Germany, England, Italy, Japan and South East Asia.

Lamm adds: �We will attempt to readapt to the DTM as quickly as possible. We have great respect for the current manufacturers and teams in the DTM. They have set the bar very high. From now on we will be working on equalling, or even surpassing, the standards they have set as soon as possible.�

�Our greatest asset is definitely the people in our team�.

Stefan Reinhold�s team, which will line up at BMW�s DTM comeback in 2012, may be a newcomer to the series � but its members are by no means lacking experience. The team�s great strengths are its individual know-how and the precise way in which it uses each member�s skills.

�The crew comes from all areas of professional motor racing,� Reinhold explains. �From GT racing and the World Rally Championship, as well as DTM and Formula One. Almost all the team members have experience gained in several fields of motorsport. They are used to working at the highest level. Clear communication and the optimal use of experience and resources, as well as uncompromising commitment, are fundamental attributes of the team. Our greatest asset is definitely the people in our team.�

The team structure started with a blank sheet of paper. Reinhold took the time to analyse the individual strengths of his crew and used this as a basis to assemble his team step by step. By the start of 2012, 25 engineers and technicians will be involved in the DTM project.

Reinhold himself has Formula One and GT racing experience to his name and has been toying with the idea of launching his own racing team for a long time. When BMW announced its return to DTM this idea took shape and work began on the conception. �In late summer 2010 we started with the concrete planning and then applied to BMW with our concept in the autumn,� Reinhold recalls. �The fact that we won BMW Motorsport over with our concept is the perfect reward for the hard work we put in during this phase.�

The team has moved into headquarters in Niederzissen. The proximity to the N�rburgring is not the only reason for motor racing being omnipresent on the team�s premises, as its former tenant was also a prominent name in motorsport: the Zakspeed team previously operated from this site and has now rented the facilities out to Reinhold.

Over the coming months, Reinhold and his team will work at full speed on the team structure in order to be ready for the first test drive with the BMW M3 DTM. �Everything from the washers to the semi-trailer will be new in our team,� says Reinhold. �However, I do not by any means see this as a disadvantage. We are very keen to take on the established DTM teams and, along with our partner BMW, to be competitive as soon as possible.

First Drive: 2012 Mercedes-Benz SLK-Class

We usually see women behind the wheel of the Mercedes-Benz SLK-Class. Who can blame them? It�s a cute little car. The original SLK debuted in 1996 with a four-cylinder powerplant and all of 136 ponies. What it lacked in the motivation department it made up for with its Vario-roof retractable hardtop. Not since the 1957 Ford Skyliner could a car stop so much traffic while parked.

The SLK gained some testosterone with its first facelift in 2000. While the exterior was still rather tame, the chick car jokes ceased in 2001 with the introduction of the 354-horsepower SLK 32 AMG.

Things continued to get better with the all-new 2004 edition and its sleeker styling that paid homage to Mercedes� Formula One designs and the beastly McMerc SLR. The reality that AMG could stuff its hand-built 5.4-liter V8 under the hood made the second-generation SLK a serious performance car.

For 2012, the SLK officially begins its third generation, and you can see the difference from 100 yards. Especially from the front view, the roadster looks more mature and substantial. The split-grill design reconstitutes the 190 SL�s design from the late 1950s in a handsome, modern manner. The bolder aesthetics continue in the rear, which features large arches over the rear wheels and LED taillamps. And it keeps getting better on the inside�

Inside, the modernized retro theme continues, with our SLK350 tester�s circular vent outlets ported through the handsomely contoured dash covered in hand-stitched Nappa leather (like the SLS AMG). Round analog gauges flank a center digital display in the main binnacle, while a bright, seven-inch LCD handles navigation as well as manipulating the climate control and infotainment systems.

While the interior and exterior are mostly new, from an engineering standpoint, the third generation seems more like a Gen 2.5.5; a facelift of the 2008 facelift. The 2012 SLK rides on the same 95.7-inch wheelbase. It�s about an inch longer and an inch wider (overall width and track), and the tidy dimensions help this car stay true to what SLK stands for: Sportlich (sporty), Leicht (light) and Kompakt (compact).

2012 Mercedes-Benz SLK side view2012 Mercedes-Benz SLK front view2012 Mercedes-Benz SLK rear view

Engines are familiar to fans of the Three-Pointed Star. In the States, we will eventually get two of three available engines for the new SLK: the 1.8-liter turbocharged four-cylinder and the naturally-aspirated 3.5-liter V6. Four-cylinder models will be called the SLK250, while V6 models gets the SLK350 badge. For 2012, both engines gain direct fuel injection in a nod to efficiency. Horsepower, torque and preliminary estimated miles per gallon figures are 201, 229 pound-feet, and 23/31 for the 1.8-liter engine and 302, 273 lb-ft., and 20/29 for the uprated V6. On this trip, only the six-cylinder SLK350 was available for us to drive, as it will be the only model offered when the SLK goes on sale in June. The SLK250 is scheduled for availability in the U.S. later in the model year.

Both engines run their torque through an updated seven-speed automatic modified to accommodate a new fuel-saving start/stop functionality. Unfortunately, cars coming to the USA won�t be getting the latter feature � at least for the moment. That�s too bad, given where fuel prices are trending and the system�s relative smoothness. Mercedes-Benz engineers use the crankshaft position sensor to know which cylinder has stopped closest to the optimum position for re-starting the engine. The engine control module then re-fires that cylinder first, an action that helps smooth out and quicken the re-start event.

2012 Mercedes-Benz SLK engine

To prepare for our drive, we needed to store two large duffle bags and wondered how much room our SLK350�s trunk provided. Mercedes-Benz literature claims 6.4 cubic feet with the roof lowered and 10.1 cubes with the roof raised. Since we would soon be driving from sea level through the clouds to the observatory at Teide National Park, some 7,800 feet above the Atlantic in Spain�s canary Islands, the top would be down and up depending on the precipitation (or a lack thereof). The trunk easily swallowed two large backpacks and a camera case with the roof stowed. Nifty.

The SLK�s hallmark retractable hardtop comes in three varieties: solid steel panels, a tinted roof section or with Benz�s trick new Magic Sky Control electrochromatic roof section. The later roof�s trick is that the transparent panel can shift its tint from almost clear to heavily darkened.

The glass section is a glass-matrix polymer-glass sandwich in which nearly microscopic rectangular particles are suspended in carrier-type fluid. When a small electrical charge is put through the polymer layer, the particles obediently arrange themselves in a vertical orientation, letting light pass through mostly unencumbered. When the juice is cut via a switch on the windshield header, the particles rotate 45-degrees, blocking most of the light (and heat) attempting to pass through. The shift requires nary a second. (Geek Note: Magic Sky Control uses a similar principle to Delphi�s Magnetic Ride Control dampers that control the flow path of damper fluid.)

2012 Mercedes-Benz SLK trunk2012 Mercedes-Benz SLK side view2012 Mercedes-Benz SLK side view

When it came time to press the starter button and head for the observatory, temperatures were mild, and low clouds hung over our oceanfront starting point. With rain threatening, it neither felt nor looked like top-down driving weather, so the top stayed in place.

The imperfect roads on Tenerife presented a less-than-ideal surface that worked to shake and rattle the SLK. It accomplished neither. The roadster easily absorbed the punishment with the aplomb of a true fixed-roof coupe. Interior noise levels (engine, road and wind) were well subdued, and the exhaust note of the V6 sounded sportier than the same mill in the C-Class sedan. No surprise there, but still a welcome discovery.

2012 Mercedes-Benz SLK interior2012 Mercedes-Benz SLK seats2012 Mercedes-Benz SLK gauges2012 Mercedes-Benz SLK navigation system

Short-wheelbase cars can feel skittish, but the SLK simply doesn�t. Even at full throttle with every foot-pound of torque twisting the rear half shafts, the SLK350 felt unshakable and secure.

As we left the island�s primary roads for the twisties ascending the extinct volcano�s walls to the observatory, the SLK�s locked-down feeling continued. Our route took us into the clouds that were heavy with moisture and the narrow roads turned slick. It seemed that the entire ride up the mountain was a Falling Rock Zone, and plenty of rocks littered the asphalt � like we needed more excitement.

Even running uphill, the 302-hp six-cylinder had plenty of power in reserve. Thinking that leaving the electronic stability control in the �On� position was a good idea, we�d often feel it working to keep the SLK in line. As expected, it immediately curbed any oversteer, but did so in a way that wasn�t retaliatory � it simply chided for being overexuberant.

2012 Mercedes-Benz SLK driving

What was unexpected was the so-called torque-vectoring function of the Electronic Stability Control. When diving into a corner under braking, we�re trained to expect a certain amount understeer � particular from Mercedes. The SLK senses the understeer and helps to mitigate it by adding a measured amount of braking to the inside rear wheel, helping to increase the car�s yaw rate and make it rotate more easily.

We�ll have to wait for the AMG-tuned version of the SLK to arrive before this chassis can be completely exploited, but indications are good thus far. Unfortunately, the ESC on the SLK350 cannot be completely disabled. When the dash switch is toggled off, the tires will spin to aid acceleration on snow or through mud, but any yaw immediately triggers a throttle intervention. When the AMG version arrives, expect an option to completely shut down the ESC.

2012 Mercedes-Benz SLK driving2012 Mercedes-Benz SLK driving

Even with ESC on, the SLK remained a remarkably fun steer. The traditional hydraulic rack-and-pinion box had a natural on-center feel. Rolling off of center, starting at about 5 degrees, the box cranks the wheels with a constant ratio. At 100 degrees of steering angle � just beyond a quarter turn and just before your arms get crossed up � the ratio increases and the wheels turn more quickly. This is a huge help on roads that twist enough that you spend as much time looking out the side glass as the windshield. On the roads of Tenerife, we rarely had to shuffle the wheel or get our arms completely crossed-up.

Somewhere north of 6,000 feet we broke through the clouds and the top went down. It was chilly enough for us to turn on the Airscarf, a feature that blows warm air on your neck. We also put up the Airguide windstop. With the heater cranked up, we remained warm in the cabin, and buffeting was kept to a minimum.

2012 Mercedes-Benz SLK rear 3/4 view

After shooting some photos, we headed back down the mountain. This strained the brakes, as evidenced by the soft pedal and burning odor. However, the Continental SportContact5 tires (225/40R18 front and 245/35/R18 rear) � known for their ability to shed speed with authority � never faltered. The average SLK driver probably isn�t going to give their drop-top the same workout, so for daily duty, the standard stoppers should do nicely.

In all, the 2012 SLK�s driving experience was a good one. It did, however, leave us wondering about a few things. First, we�re looking forward to some time behind the wheel of the lighter SLK250. The tonnage is down by more than 100 pounds and weight distribution should be closer to 50/50. The SLK350�s smaller-engined sibling could end up being the better of the two offerings � that is, until the V8 AMG model enters the mix. We�ll let you know as soon as we get the chance to try them out.

[Source: autoblog]

Saab JAS 39 Gripen Aircraft

Saab JAS 39 "Gripen" (Griffin) is a fighter aircraft from Sweden, produced by Saab. The aircraft was sold by the company Gripen International, a joint venture between Saab and BAE Systems. This aircraft has been used by Swedish air force, Czech Republic, and Hungary, and has been ordered by South Africa and Thailand.


in designing this aircraft Saab kanard choose a design that is not stable. Kanard provides pitch rate is high and low resistance to allow aircraft to fly faster, farther and more mengankut load.

The combination of delta wing and Gripen Kanard provide better performance in terms of character fly and take off and land. The total integrated avionics make the aircraft is capable of "program". The aircraft also has an internal electronic warfare devices, enabling him to carry the maximum load without compromising the ability of electronic war.

The desired capability for Gripen from scratch is able to take off from runway 800 meter.Pada original project, all flights conducted from Saab in Link�ping basis using reference a "line of the box" measuring 9 m � 800 m runway, runway painted. Braking distance is also shortened by enlarging the air brake (use control surfaces to push the aircraft toward the bottom, making it more powerful brake pressed down and the next step is to rotate kanard forward, memngubah kanard into large air brakes, to push the aircraft down even worse.

One interesting capability of the Gripen is the ability to land on public roads, which is one of Sweden's defense strategy. Once landed, the plane can be filled with fuel and armed again in 10 minutes by 5 people ground crew operating out of a truck, then Gripen flying back to carry out its mission.

For long-term Saab consider using newer machines such as General Electric F414 or a thrust-vectoring version of the Eurofighter Typhoon's EJ200 engine and additional fuel tanks or a fuselage extension separately mileage even further.


Gripen menggukan PS-05 / A pulse-doppler radar, made by Ericsson and GEC-Marconi, and based on the Blue Vixen radar-owned Sea Harrier (which also inspired the Eurofighter's radar CAPTOR).

The radar is capable of detecting, tracking the location, identify and automatically track multiple targets at the top or bottom of the aircraft, sea land and air, in all weather conditions.

Overview Saab Company

SAAB (originally an acronym for "Svenska Aeroplan AB." "AB" stands for "aktiebolaget" or the "Company") was established as a company SAAB aircraft in 1937 in the town of Link�ping, Sweden.

After World War II Saab also started producing cars through the company Saab Automobile. The company was then purchased half by General Motors in 1990, and then the remaining ten years later.

Saab also started a computer business in the late 1950s with the name Datasaab.

In 1969 Saab took the truck maker Scania AB, and between 1969 and 1995 the company was called the Saab-Scania.


In 1995, Saab Military Aircraft and BAE Systems formed a joint venture company Saab-BAe Gripen AB, with the aim of adapting, producing, marketing and supporting Gripen internationally.

BAE SYSTEMS designs and perfect wing. Saab Military Aircraft is responsible for the overall aircraft system, including basic aircraft development and production, and testing of delivery as well.

In 1998 BAE Systems to take over 35% of Saab Military Aircraft.

Nissan at Glance

Nissan Motor Co.., Ltd.., or abbreviated as Nissan Motors or simply Nissan, is a Japanese automotive industry which used to market the Datsun brand products until 1983. Its main office is located in the Ginza area of Chuo-ku, Tokyo but Nissan plans to move their main offices to Yokohama, Kanagawa in 2010, where construction has started in 2007.

Nissan, Nissan Motor Co. the full name., Ltd.. (Nissan Jidosha Kabushiki-gaisha) (TYO: 7201, NASDAQ: NSANY)-is the second largest automotive company in Japan after Toyota and is one of Asia's three main contender in the United States.

Together with their alliance, Renault, Nissan became the fourth largest producer in the world

Nissan Car Model

Overview The Infiniti Automobile

Infiniti is a Japanese automobile company which is the luxury division of Nissan Motor Co.., Ltd. .. The company was founded on November 8, 1989 in North America and now the operation grew into the Middle East, South Korea, Russia, China, Taiwan, and Ukraine. Infiniti operates in a number of other European countries from late 2008. Headquartered in Tokyo. The company now operates in 15 countries and has 230 dealers worldwide.

Infiniti name not be used in Japan, so all models sold under the brand Nissan Infiniti: G37 sedan / coupe (Nissan Skyline Coupe), M35/45 (Nissan fugue), EX35 (Nissan Skyline Crossover) and Q45 (Nissan Cima). Infiniti FX are not sold in Japan.


Infiniti brand was introduced in the United States in 1989. Infiniti trying to produce premium cars in the U.S. who are not suitable imagenya with most Nissan products. Infiniti Q45 was first launched, the pemgembangannya by Nissan president with a smaller wheelbase. Q45 V8 engine equipped with a power 278 hp (207 kW), four-wheel steering and active suspension system. Thus, the Q45 can be competitive with other luxury sedan range Mercedes S-Class, BMW 7 series, Jaguar XJ and Cadillac Fleetwood. However, the Q45 only managed to sell fewer than its competitors from Toyota, Lexus LS.

Infiniti also launched a 2-door M30 coupe (1990) are equipped with engines that emit coded VG30E power 162 hp (121 kW). M30 coupe weighs 1540 kilograms and equipped with automatic transmission.

In 1991, Infiniti launched the third model with the launch of the Infiniti G20 which is the development of the Nissan Primera and the luxury models of the Nissan Sunny. Infiniti G20 have coded engine SR20DE and powerful 150 bhp (112 kW/152 PS) with a multi-port fuel injection to improve performance.

1992 Infiniti J30 launched VG30DE coded engine powered by 210 hp

About Isuzu Motor Ltd

Isuzu Motors Ltd.. Isuzu Jidosha Kabushiki-Kaisha?), (TYO: 7202) is a Japanese automotive company that produces various kinds of diesel-engined vehicles. Isuzu mostly produce commercial vehicles and heavy trucks. The company is headquartered in Tokyo, was founded in 1937. In 2005, Isuzu was the producer of medium trucks and large trucks are the largest in the world. This company has a plant in Fujisawa, Tochigi and Hokkaido prefecture.

The company is famous for its diesel engine, producing 16 million dieseln machine in 2003, and can be found all over the world.
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The company employs 7371 workers in 2007.

In Asia, Africa, and Europe, Isuzu is known many of his truck with all sizes, after sedan and compact car sales decline very drastically the late 1990s, and therefore also Isuzu closed.

In 2006, Isuzu to make an alliance with Toyota Motor Corporation by Toyota bought 5.9% shares of Isuzu.

Finding The Best Motor Homes

There are some things you need to know before buying motor homes. Motor homes or motorized recreational vehicles (RVs) come in different classes. Two of those classes are usually confused with each other, those being class A and class C motor homes. It's essential to look at the physical appearance of the motor home in order to determine whether it is class A or class C. Class A motor homes resemble a bus design with a flat or vertical front end and large windows while hand class C motor homes have a truck cab with an over-cab bed, in some ways resembling a camper.

Considered to be top of the line, Class A motor homes measure at about 24 feet or 7.3 meters and can be as long as 40 feet or 12 meters. Their weight can range between 15,000 to 30,000 pounds or 6,804 to 13, 608 kg; the undercarriage may be custom or a 3 to 10 ton truck chassis. Class A motor homes come with each of the luxury amenities you can fathom like a kitchen, a bathroom with shower and a tub, and sometimes a separate bedroom at the back depending o the floor plan of the truck. They also have heating and air conditioning, hot and cold running water, 100-125 volt electrical system, a dinette or living room area complete with couch and recliners, closets and an entertainment center. This is just the tip of the iceberg. In fact, some of these motor homes can be more elaborate than homes themselves.

Class A motor homes are usually utilized by famous bands especially when they are in tour. There are also some rich families that own Class A motor homes for vacation and travel. A Class A motor home is perfect for those who can afford its high cost. Most Class A motor homes have all leather interior, a wet bar, big screen TVs, an advanced sound system and other high technology that may not be available to lower income families.

Depending on the model and the floor plan a class A RV can accommodate up to 8 people. But all of this luxury comes at a price. New, lower-end models are sold at up to $50,000 US dollars while larger and much nicer class A RVs can even cost more than any house in many states coming in at about $300,000+. Class A RVs are really very expensive; in fact even used class A RV can still be sold for $30,000-$40,000. If you prefer luxury lines, you may start saving about $325,000 up to over $1 million if you prefer the cr�me de la cr�me of all RVs.

Last but not least are Class C motor homes. Class C motor homes can also come in very luxurious models or more economical ones depending on your budget. They are much lighter in weight, ranging only from 10,000 to 15,000 pounds and generally run from just under 20 to 44 feet in length. They are constructed on cutaway chassis depending on the model. The cab is usually similar to that of the truck with a bunk above plus a rear bedroom. Just like the class A, Class C motor homes have all the amenities of home including kitchen, bathroom, dinette, heating and air conditioning system, and an entertainment center for additional cost.

Dinettes are not always present in class C motor homes and if ever there is one included, it usually converts into a double bed. If a dinette is not present, two captain chairs are available instead. Sometimes, the motor homes contain a couch and chairs instead of captain chairs. The couch may also be turned into a sleeper couch.

Because of the overcab bed, a Class C motor home can sleep more than a comparable Class A motor home, accommodating up to 10 people are accommodated. The cost of class C motor homes ranges from $50,000 to $170,000.

The common features of Class A and Class C motor homes are their slide-out wherein with a simple touch of a button the wall of the living room expands outwards to extend the living space by several inches.

Another type of motor home is the Class B which is usually referred to as van conversion. Class B motor homes look like pop-top camper vans and are self contained but cramped compared to their big motor home counterparts. The advantage of purchasing a Class B motor home is in terms of handling and size that is if you don't want spacious motor home. They are usually promoted as a place to sleep more than what is deemed comfortable by most people. The class B motor home can also be used as a second car. Its price ranges from $38,000 to $75,000.

Motor homes are great for camping, road trips, or just simply living in style. If you are interested in purchasing a motor home, it is definitely wise to take time to do some comparison shopping and research as these motor homes can prove to be very expensive.

Why Hybrid Car Drivers Need Thick Skin

Buying a hybrid car is more than a calculated decision to save fuel. It is a statement about "saving the planet".

Even if the chances are pretty slim that hybrid technology will actually make much difference, it gives hybrid owners the right to feel superior. After all, they care about the planet. And the rest of the world obviously doesn't.

But if you're one of those hybrid owners you'd better be ready to lose some friends. Here's why...

1. You're Driving Way Too Slow

In theory at least, hybrid owners are the antithesis of those guys who just ache to get in that passing lane and leave the rest of us behind. You know the're minding your own business coming out onto the expressway and the otherwise ordinary guy in the vehicle behind you swings out and passes even before you've hit the highway.

Hybrid owners seem to do just the opposite. You've known for years that driving slow saves fuel. So you're likely to be driving under the speed limit rather than over like the rest of the world.

The fact that you're driving a hybrid just makes it worse, since you know that all the potential savings are squandered if you try to go fast.

Especially when you're accelerating. That guy in the high powered vehicle who pulls out and passes... the thought of saving gas has never crossed his mind. But hydrid owners know better. For you it's a moral duty to save fuel. The fate of the planet depends on it. So there's no way you're going to try any of that fast acceleration stuff.

2. What's with the Pulse and Glide Stuff

You've been told that "pulse and glide" can make a serious difference to your gas milage. That's where you accelerate (conservatively) to the speed limit, and then let the car "glide" to 10 or more miles per hour below the speed limit. Repeat this procedure. Repeat this procedure. Repeat this procedure...

I once had a friend who drove like this. I thought he was dozing off between pulses, but now I know differently. He was actually doing the environmentally responsible thing.

My friend's driving habits aside, this practice is not going to endear you to all the rest of the drivers who can't figure out why you keep slowing down. It's probably smart to speed up just a little when you find yourself in anything other than the "slow" lane.

All bets are off when they let you use the carpool lane.

3. You Just Won't Inch Forward Will You!

Everybody else in the world knows that you must "inch" forward during stop and go traffic. How else are you going to keep up with the driver in front. Besides, if you leave more than about a 15' gap between you and the guy ahead somebody's going to jump into the gap and slow you down even more.

Hybrid drivers have been told this "inching forward" stuff is pointless and wastes fuel. And the way they build hybrids these days they've got a point. When you take your foot off the brake pedal the auto-stop turns off and the gasoline engine restarts -- like one of those gasoline engine golf carts. And there goes most of your gas savings. All those stops and starts just eat up the gas.

But don't expect your mono-drive cousins to understand. They've only got one thing in mind: to get wherever they're going just as fast as possible. And everybody knows that racing up behind the guy in front is the only way to make that happen.

4. Do you really think you should be drafting me like that?

The responsible hybrid owner will make use of every advantage to save gas. And drafting larger vehicles is one technique that the more aggressive will try. That's where you pull right up behind a semi, a van, or an SUV and try to stay in the pocket of air they are pulling along behind them.

I remember doing this with an old '65 Beetle a few years back. We were travelling along the New York Thruway drafting semis. We were making great time and saving lots of gas... until we blew a rod.

Of course, sticking on someone's bumper will not endear you to too many of your fellow drivers. And as I discovered, it's a bit dangerous too. You'll find yourself going quite a bit faster than you otherwise would go. And whipping along in that back-draft does not do a lot for your stability.

Just try to remember, when you're out there on the highway trying to save the planet, the rest of the world could care less about your morally superiour driving habits. All they want to do is get where they're going as fast as they can.

BMW 135i Coupe, 2010

BMW 135i Coupe, 2010


Starting immediately the BMW 135i Coupe and the BMW 135i Convertible come with a straight-six power unit of the latest generation for the first time combining BMW TwinPower Turbo Technology, High Precision Injection and fully variable VALVETRONIC valve management, all interacting with one another to set new standards for economy with the highest level of performance.

In conjunction with the seven-speed double-clutch gearbox (DKG) featuring Sport Automatic available as an option for the first time in the BMW 1-Series as of March 2010, these superior technologies offer a further significant reduction of fuel consumption and emissions on these top-flight performers, setting up new records in acceleration and dynamic performance.

The top engine featured in both versions of the BMW 1-Series develops maximum output of 225 kW/306 hp at 5,800 rpm from a capacity of three litres, combining spontaneous and direct response with unleashed free-revving driving qualities. Peak torque of the six-cylinder is 400 Newton-metres/295 lb-ft delivered from just 1,200 rpm all the way to 5,000 rpm.

The seven-speed double-clutch gearbox with Sport Automatic shifting gears without the slightest interruption in power and torque, is likewise designed and built for dynamic performance of the highest standard.

Sport Automatic offers not just the option to shift gears manually on the electronic gear selector lever or via the shift paddles on the steering wheel, but also the usual comfort and convenience of a BMW automatic transmission.

The combination of these two innovations in a compact car naturally guarantees driving pleasure of a new standard never seen before. Accelerating from 0 - 60 mph in just 5.0 and from 0 - 100 km/h in 5.2 seconds, the BMW 135i Coupe with its double-clutch gearbox offers the same supreme standard as a thoroughbred sports car even more than in the past.

A truly unique achievement in this performance class is average fuel consumption in the EU test cycle of 8.5 litres/100 kilometres (equal to provisional combined of approx. 22 mpg US), almost one litre/100 kilometres better than the comparable figure in the former model with its six-speed automatic transmission.

This significant reduction of fuel consumption, together with acceleration to 60 mph improved once again by 0.2 seconds, clearly confirms the progress made through BMW EfficientDynamics with this new engine and transmission technology.

The BMW 135i Convertible with double-clutch gearbox accelerates to 60 mph in 5.3 seconds and reaches 100 km/h in 5.5 seconds. Average fuel consumption in the EU test cycle is 8.6 litres/100 km (provisional combined US figure approx 22 mpg), which is 0.8 litres better than on the former model with automatic transmission.

On the same fuel consumption, this is better even than the acceleration and consumption figures of the respective models with a six-speed manual gearbox: the hand-shifted version of the BMW 135i Coupe accelerates to 60 mph in 5.1, the manual-gearbox version of the BMW 135i Convertible in 5.4 seconds (0 -100 km/h on the Coupe in 5.3, on the Convertible in 5.6 seconds).

At the same time the combination of the BMW TwinPower Turbo engine with the manual gearbox also newly developed likewise enhances all-round efficiency by a significant margin. In practice, this means a reduction of average fuel consumption by the BMW 135i Coupe to 8.5 litres and a reduction on the BMW 135i Convertible to 8.6 litres/100 kilometres (provisional combined US figure for both models approx. 22 mpg).

Outstanding innovation for optimised efficiency: first-ever VALVETRONIC on a turbocharged engine.
The new straight-six power unit of the BMW 135i Coupe and the BMW 135i Convertible owes its exceptional efficiency to the first-ever combination of BMW TwinPower Turbo Technology, High Precision Injection, and VALVETRONIC valve management.

The turbocharger system following the twin-scroll principle separating the ducts for three cylinders at a time both in the exhaust gas manifold and in the turbocharger, as well as VALVETRONIC developed to an even higher standard of efficiency, contributes accordingly to the extremely spontaneous and direct response of the drivetrain.

This kind of technology allows infinite adjustment of valve stroke and valve timing on the intake valves. Throttle losses in the charge cycle are reduced to a minimum and the energy contained in the fuel is put to maximum use. In conjunction with High Precision Injection likewise optimised to an even higher standard, this offers an unparalleled balance of driving performance and fuel economy never seen before in this class.

The BMW 135i Coupe and the BMW 135i Convertible come as standard with a wide range of BMW EfficientDynamics technologies combined with one another in an appropriate symbiosis for each specific market, including features such as Brake Energy Regeneration, a gearshift point indicator on models with a manual gearbox, a map-controlled oil pump, final drive with optimised warm-up running qualities, as well as on-demand control of the engine's ancillary units such as the pressure-controlled fuel pump.

Enhanced dynamics, greater efficiency: new six-speed manual gearbox and optional seven-speed Double-Clutch Gearbox.

Both the BMW 135i Coupe and the BMW 135i Convertible come as standard with a newly developed six-speed manual gearbox. Optimised for maximum efficiency, this high-tech gearbox features dry sump lubrication significantly reducing drag forces and completely avoiding splash losses in the interest of even greater efficiency all round.

The seven-speed double-clutch gearbox with Sport Automatic featured for the first time in the BMW 1-Series makes an even greater contribution to the optimisation of driving characteristics in the spirit of BMW EfficientDynamics. The double-clutch gearbox improves both acceleration and the efficiency of these compact top-flight performers, at the same time combining this dual progress with the comfort features of a BMW automatic transmission. The seven-speed double-clutch gearbox shifts gears without the slightest interruption of power and torque and offers the driver the choice of either automatic transmission or a manual gearshift.

The fast and smooth shift of gears allows unusually harmonious acceleration and helps to reduce both fuel consumption and emissions. The close, sporting increments of the seven gears ensure that the optimum transmission ratio is always available in all situations.

A combination of dry sump and injection lubrication serves to further optimise the efficiency of the engine through a supreme level of oil supply.
Last but not least, the double-clutch gearbox is controlled with utmost convenience either through the newly designed gear selector lever or by gearshift paddles on the steering wheel.

BMW 135i Coupe and BMW 135i Convertible: outstanding performers in the compact segment and beyond.

The new six-cylinder with BMW TwinPower Turbo Technology and the seven-speed double-clutch gearbox bring out the unique character of these top performers in the compact segment even more and in greater style than ever before. Through their performance alone, the BMW 135i Coupe and the BMW 135i Convertible achieve the supreme standard of a very powerful sports car. And at the same time the driving experience conveyed by both models boasts the agility typical of a BMW 1-Series.

Superior drivetrain technology and a concept unique in this class with rear-wheel drive, the passenger cell moved far to the back, and almost ideal distribution of axle load, offer the optimum combination for unique driving pleasure.

Both models come as standard with a modified M Aerodynamics Package and M Sports Suspension. Other standard features include DSC Dynamic Stability Control with an individualised set-up, an electronically masterminded locking function on the differential, as well as model-specific control maps for Servotronic power steering and the gas pedal, again underlining the sporting character of both models.

BMW-5 Series Gran Turismo, 2010

BMW-5 Series Gran Turismo, 2010

BMW-5 Series Gran Turismo, 2010